Lunds University

Referencing in the text

When you make a direct or indirect citation or a reference of someone else’s text you must reference to the source. This is always done in direct connection with the citation, i.e. into the body of the text.

The note refers to the source in the list of references, and must contain adequate information for a reader to identify the right source in the list of references, bibliography.

Parentheses or footnotes

The reference is either made within a parentheses directly after a citation/summary (e.g. APA, Harvard, Chicago), or in a footnote (e.g. Oxford), where a number directly after the text refers to a footnote at the bottom of the page or at the end of the chapter/article.


The reference always contains as a minimum:

  • Surname
  • Year
  • Page reference, if you are referencing to one or several specific pages.

Harvard: (Collins, 2007, p. 259)

A text can have more than one author. If it has two or three authors, you should always state the surnames of all of them. If the number of authors exceeds three the reference custom differs, depending on which reference system you are using.

(Persson, Olsson, 2002, p. 345)

If your reference list contains references from the same year by two authors with the same surname, you must write the initials of their first names to separate the two.

(Collins, H., 2007)
(Collins, B., 2007)

If the same author has published more than one work in the same year, you must also be able to distinguish between them. Often you divide them into a, b, c in the note and in the reference list.

(Collins, 2007a, 2. 260)

Last updated: October 5, 2009
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